Sharding Postgres with Semi-Structured Data and Its Performance Implications

(Copy of original publication)

If you’re looking at Citus its likely you’ve outgrown a single node database. In most cases your application is no longer performing as you’d like. In cases where your data is still under 100 GB a single Postgres instance will still work well for you, and is a great choice. At levels beyond that Citus can help, but how you model your data has a major impact on how much performance you’re able to get out of the system.

Some applications fit naturally in this scaled out model, but others require changes in your application. The model you choose can determine the queries you’ll be able to run in a performant manner. You can approach this in two ways either from how your data may already be modeled today or more ideally by examining the queries you’re looking to run and needs on performance of them to inform which data model may make the most sense.

One large table, without joins

We’ve found that storing semi-structured data in JSONB helps reduce the number of tables required, which improves scalability. Let’s look at the example of web analytics data. They traditionally store a table of events with minimal information, and use lookup tables to refer to the events and record extra information. Some events have more associated information than others. By replacing the lookup tables by a JSONB column you can easily query and filter while still having great performance. Let’s take a look at what an example schema might look like following by a few queries to show what’s possible:

  id UUID,
  site_id uuid,
  visited_at TIMESTAMPTZ,
  session_id UUID,
  page TEXT,
  url_params JSONB

Note that url parameters for an event are open-ended, and no parameters are guaranteed. Even the common “utm” parameters (such as utm_source, utm_medium, utm_campaign) are by no means universal. Our choice of using a JSONB column for url_params is much more convenient than creating columns for each parameter. With JSONB we can get both the flexibility of schema, and combined with GIN indexing we can still have performant queries against all keys and values without having to index them individually.

Enter Citus

Assuming you do need to scale beyond a single node, Citus can help at scaling out your processing power, memory, and storage. In the early stages of utilizing Citus you’ll create your schema, then tell the system how you wish to shard your data.

In order to determine the ideal sharding key you need to examine the query load and types of operations you’re looking to perform. If you are storing aggregated data and all of your queries are per customer then a shard key such as customer_id or tenant_id can be a great choice. Even if you have minutely rollups and then need to report on a daily basis this can work well. This allows you to easily route queries to shards just for that customer. As a result of routing queries to a single shard this can allow you a higher concurrency.

In the case where you are storing raw data, there often ends up being a lot of data per customer. Here it can be more difficult to get sub-second response without further parallelizing queries per customer. It may also be difficult to get predictable sub-second responsiveness if you have a low number of customers or if 80% of your data comes from one customer. In the above mentioned cases, picking a shard key that’s more granular than customer or tenant id can be ideal.

The distribution of your data and query workload is what will heavily determine which key is right for you.

With the above example if all of your sites have the same amount of traffic then site_id might be reasonable, but if either of the above cases is true then something like session_id could be a more ideal distribution key.

The query workload

With a sharding key of session_id we could easily perform a number of queries such as:

Top page views over the last 7 days for a given site:

SELECT page,
FROM visits
WHERE site_id = 'foo'
  AND visited_at > now() - '7 days'::interval

Unique sessions today:

SELECT distinct(session_id)
FROM visits
WHERE site_id = 'foo'
  AND visited_at > date_trunc('date', now())

And assuming you have an index on url_params you could easily do various rollups on it… Such as find the campaigns that have driven the most traffic to you over the past 30 days and which pages received the most benefit:

SELECT url_params ->> 'utm_campaign',
FROM visits
WHERE url_params ? 'utm_campaign'
  AND visited_at >= now() - '30 days'::interval
  AND site_id = 'foo'
GROUP BY url_params ->> 'utm_campaign',

Every distribution has its thorns

Choosing a sharding key always involves trade-offs. If you’re optimising to get the maximum parallelism out of your database then matching your cores to the number of shards ensures that every query takes full advantage of your resources. In contrast if you’re optimising for higher read concurrency, then allowing queries to run against only a single shard will allow more queries to run at once, although each individual query will experience less parallelism.

The choice really comes down to what you’re trying to accomplish in your application. If you have questions about what method to use to shard your data, or what key makes sense for your application please feel free to reach out to us or join our slack channel.